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-   -   Ketogenics - Leptin/Insulin Resistance (https://www.3fatchicks.com/forum/low-carb-frequently-asked-questions/300329-ketogenics-leptin-insulin-resistance.html)

Mossy 11-05-2014 12:53 AM

Ketogenics - Leptin/Insulin Resistance
I've been using ketogenics to eliminate insulin resistance...have you?

My first day was June 1, 2014...I was really struggling to lose a single pound for years until I tried ketogenics. In 5 months, I've lost 43. My energy levels have soared and it's working for me. My numbers are good.

Anyone else using keto for health and happiness?

Mossy 11-05-2014 02:53 PM

Nutritional ketosis can provide fuel by restricting carbs. Keto Adaptation will shift metabolism after an extended period of time. It is the process of breaking fat down at a high rate of speed into fatty acids....which turns into Ketogenesis, fatty acids are transported into ketones. Ketones then displace glucose in the body and brain for energy in the form of fats.

Mossy 11-05-2014 03:32 PM

While losing weight is difficult for many people, it is even more challenging to keep the weight off. Most people who lose a large amount of weight have regained it 2 to 3 years later. One theory about regaining lost weight is that people who decrease their caloric intake to lose weight experience a drop in their metabolic rate, making it increasingly difficult to lose weight over a period of months. A lower metabolic rate may also make it easier to regain weight after a more normal diet is resumed. For these reasons, extremely low calorie diets and rapid weight loss are discouraged.

Losing no more than 1/2 to 2 pounds per week is recommended. Incorporating long-term lifestyle changes are required to increase the chance of successful long-term weight loss.

Weight loss to a healthy weight for a person's height can promote health benefits such as lower cholesterol and blood sugar levels, lower blood pressure, less stress on bones and joints, and less work for the heart. Thus, it is vital to maintain weight loss to obtain health benefits over a lifetime.

Keeping extra weight off requires effort and commitment, just as losing weight does. Weight loss goals are reached by a combination of changes in diet, eating habits, exercise, and, in extreme circumstances, bariatric surgery.

Mossy 11-05-2014 03:36 PM

Gradual weight loss does not reduce the amount or rate of weight regain compared with losing weight quickly, new research led by the University Of Melbourne has found.

Published in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology today, the study examined whether losing weight at a slow initial rate, as recommended by current dietary guidelines worldwide, resulted in larger long-term weight reduction and less weight regain in obese individuals, than losing weight at a faster rate. 

Led by Joseph Proietto, Sir Edward Dunlop Professor of Medicine at the University of Melbourne and Head of the Weight Control Clinic at Austin Health, the study also found that substantial weight loss is more likely to be achieved if undertaken rapidly.

“This randomised study highlights the urgent need for committees that develop clinical guidelines for the management of obesity to change their advice,” he said. 

The trial included 200 obese adults (BMI 30–45kg/mē) who were randomly assigned to either a 12-week rapid weight loss programme (average weight loss 1.5kg a week) on a very-low-calorie diet (450–800 Cal/day) or a 36-week gradual weight-loss programme (average weight loss 0.5kg a week) based on current dietary recommendations.

Co-author and dietitian, Katrina Purcell said that the findings would impact the worldwide treatment of obesity. 

“Global guidelines recommend gradual weight loss for the treatment of obesity, reflecting the widely-held belief that fast weight loss is more quickly regained. However, our results show that an obese person is more likely to achieve a weight loss target of 12.5 per cent weight loss, and less likely to drop out of their weight loss program, if losing weight is done quickly,” she said.

The researchers found that the initial rate of weight loss did not affect the amount or rate of weight regain: with similar amounts of weight regained by 3 years by participants on both diet programmes who completed both phases of the study (around 71 per cent in both groups).

The authors suggested a number of possible explanations for their findings including that the limited carbohydrate intake of very-low-calorie diets promotes greater satiety, and less food intake by inducing the production of hunger suppressants called ketones. Losing weight quickly may also motivate participants to stick to the diet.

The research was done in collaboration with La Trobe University.

Mossy 11-05-2014 03:40 PM

Contrary to current dietary recommendations, slow and steady weight loss does not reduce the amount or rate of weight regain compared with losing weight quickly, new research published in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology has found.

The study, led by Joseph Proietto, Sir Edward Dunlop Professor of Medicine at the University of Melbourne and Head of the Weight Control Clinic at Austin Health in Australia, set out to examine whether losing weight at a slow initial rate, as recommended by current guidelines worldwide, results in larger long-term weight reduction and less weight regain than losing weight at a faster initial rate in obese individuals.

The Australian trial included 200 obese adults (BMI 30-45kg/mē) who were randomly assigned to either a 12-week rapid weight loss (RWL) programme on a very-low-calorie diet (450-800 kcal/day) or a 36-week gradual weight-loss (GWL) programme. The GWL programme reduced participants' energy intake by approximately 500 kcal/day in line with current dietary weight loss guidelines. Participants who lost more than 12.5% of their bodyweight were then placed on a weight maintenance diet for 3 years.

Participants who lost weight faster were more likely to achieve target weight loss: 81% of participants in the RWL group lost ≥12.5% of their bodyweight versus just 50% in the GWL group. The researchers found that the initial rate of weight loss did not affect the amount or rate of weight regain in these patients who entered the subsequent weight maintenance period, as similar amounts of weight were regained after 3 years by participants who had lost weight on either diet programme. Weight regain was around 71% in both groups after 3 years.

Mossy 11-05-2014 03:52 PM

Dr Hollywood interviewed 10 people, who had put on weight over the 18 months after they were prescribed the weight-loss medication Orlistat, about their experiences.

Dr Hollywood and her colleague Dr Jane Ogden found that the women attributed their failure to lose weight to the mechanics of the drug. They highlighted the barriers to weight loss and talked about other weight-loss methods that had not worked for them.

Overall, the researchers found, these people saw their failure to lose weight as an inevitable part of their identity. They felt that it reflected their self-fulfilling belief that they would be perpetual dieters.
Dr Hollywood says: "Weight-loss medication is widely prescribed, but with very mixed results. Many patients either do not lose weight or go on to regain any weight lost. We felt it was important to look at the experiences of these people who do not lose weight, or do not maintain the weight lost in the long term, with this drug.

Our research suggests that prescribing this type of drug should be accompanied by information that reinforces the reality of sticking to the low fat diet that is necessary to avoid the unpleasant consequences of the drug, such as anal leakage, and that these 'side effects' should not be attributed to the drug but to the individuals eating behaviour.

Unless we get the psychology right and change people's beliefs about themselves, their eating and the way the drug works, this medication is often going to produce disappointing results.

Mossy 11-05-2014 03:56 PM

High protein diet can reduce rebound weight gain
October 31, 2013
Karolinska Institutet[

The study, which was carried out by researchers at Karolinska Institutet's Clinical Epidemiology Unit and the Obesity Centre at Karolinska University Hospital in Sweden, contributes knowledge about what is without doubt the greatest challenge to anyone attempting to lose weight: how to reduce rebound weight gain and maintain the lower body weight after the weight loss phase.

"The body has several defence mechanisms against weight loss, such as increased hunger, lower energy metabolism and relapse back to old habits," says research team member Dr Erik Hemmingsson. "If the problem of rebound weight gain didn't exist, obesity would be relatively easy to treat. There have been several possible methods to facilitate long-term weight control over the years, and now the database was large enough to make a systematic evaluation of existing studies."

In their meta-analysis, the team combined the results of 20 published scientific studies including a total of 3,017 participants, who were either obese or overweight at the start of the weight loss process. The various studies examined the effects of drugs, meal replacements, high protein diets, dietary supplements and exercise on rebound weight gain after an intensive weight loss, low-calorie diet (less the 1,000 calories a day).

Even though the study shows that rebound weight gain is more the rule than the exception, the researchers found that several strategies obviously helped to reduce the unwanted effect: anti-obesity drugs, powdered meal replacements, and a high protein diet. Low glycaemic index (GI) food was also effective, although the data in that case came from a single study, which the researchers say makes the conclusions less reliable.

"Anti-obesity drugs unfortunately carry a risk of adverse events, so the most effective drugs were completely withdrawn a few years ago," says Dr Hemmingsson. "Meal replacement products and high protein diets, on the other hand, are effective and available to everyone."
One interesting result was that exercise had no clear effect on weight loss maintenance. The reason, however, might be that one of the included trials studied relatively sick patients with serious arthrosis who had been prescribed special physiotherapy. In another study, in which the participants exercised in a more normal way, the effect was similar to eating a high protein diet. Dietary supplements were not associated with a reduced rebound effect.

Mossy 11-05-2014 04:01 PM

Factors that Contribute to Leptin Resistance

As with all hormone issues, Leptin resistance is a complex issue with no singular cause, but there are many factors that can negatively impact Leptin levels including:

Fructose consumption (especially in forms like High Fructose Corn Syrup)
High stress levels
Consumption of a lot of simple carbs
Lack of sleep
High insulin levels (vicious cycle here)
Exercising too much, especially if your hormones are already damaged
Grain and lectin consumption
How to Fix Leptin Resistance:

Dr. Jack Kruse (a neurosurgeon) and Stephan Guyenet (an obesity researcher) have both written in depth about the causes of Leptin imbalance and ways to reverse it. Changing the Body’s Setpoint, Factors that affect Leptin, and Dr. Kruse’s Leptin Prescription. The book Mastering Leptin also has a much more in depth explanation and suggestions.

Eating little to no simple starches, refined foods, sugars and fructose
Consuming a large amount of protein and healthy fats first thing in the morning, as soon after waking as possible. This promotes satiety and gives the body the building blocks to make hormones. .

Be in bed by ten (no excuses) and optimize your sleep!
Get outside during the day.

DON’T SNACK!!! When you are constantly eating, even small amounts, during the day it keeps your liver working and doesn’t give hormones a break. Try to space meals at least 4 hours apart and don’t eat for at least 4 hours before bed. This includes drinks with calories but herbal teas, water, coffee or tea without cream or sugar are fine.

Don’t workout at first. If you are really Leptin resistant, this will just be an additional stress on the body. Let your body heal a little first, then add in the exercise.
When you do exercise, Walk or swim if you want to but don’t do cardio just for the sake of cardio. It’s just a stress on the body. High intensity and weight lifting, on the other hand, give the hormone benefits of working out without the stress from excess cardio and are great after the first few weeks. Also, workout in the evening, not the morning, to support hormone levels.

Eat (or take) more Omega-3s fish, meats, and minimize your Omega-6 consumption (vegetable oils), to get lower inflammation and help support healthy leptin levels.

Mossy 11-05-2014 04:09 PM

You should check with your physician if you have any concerns about starting a ketogenic diet plan with pre-existing health conditions, especially if those conditions involve kidney or heart problems. People with kidney disease should definitely consult with their physician about starting a ketogenic diet.

Just remember the doctor is confusing nutritional ketosis with a more dangerous condition called ketoacidosis.

Ketoacidosis versus Ketosis

Some doctors and other medical professionals confuse ketoacidosis, an extremely abnormal form of ketosis, with the normal benign dietary ketosis associated with ketogenic diets and fasting states in the body.
They will then tell you that ketosis is dangerous.
The difference between the two conditions is a matter of volume and flow rate*:

Benign dietary ketosis is a controlled, insulin regulated process which results in a mild release of fatty acids and ketone body production in response to low carbohydrate intake, and higher fat consumption.

Ketoacidosis is a condition in which abnormal quantities of ketones are produced in an unregulated biochemical situation. In order to reach a state of ketoacidosis, the body has to be in a state of not producing enough insulin to regulate the flow of fatty acids and the creation of ketone bodies. Type 1 Diabetes.

Mossy 11-05-2014 04:13 PM

This is why one of the symptoms of Type 1 diabetes is unexplained weight loss. Type 1 diabetics have pancreatic damage which results in a complete lack of insulin production, and as a consequence, their fat cells have no insulin message telling them to "hold on to those fatty acids".

Without that message from insulin, large quantities of fatty acids flow out of the fat cells and are broken down in the liver into a ketone body called acetoacetic acid which is then converted to two other circulation ketone bodies, Beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetone.

This is ketosis, but an unrestrained, abnormally excessive ketosis.

The danger of keto-acidosis is in the amounts of the ketone bodies being released. Because ketone bodies are slightly acidic in nature, and so many are released at once in a ketoacidosis situation, they build up in the bloodstream.

The sheer volume quickly overwhelms the delicate acid-base buffering system of the blood, and the blood pH drops to become more acidic than normal.

It is this low pH, acidic condition known as acidosis which is dangerous, not the ketones themselves.

Acidosis symptoms include fruity breath (from the acetone), nausea, hyperventilation, (deep, rapid breathing) dehydration and low blood pressure, as the body tries to rid itself of the abnormal amounts of ketones through the lungs and urine.

If left untreated, ketogenic acidosis can result in a coma and death. Treatment includes the administration of insulin to slow the ketosis and fluid replacement.

Diabetics can develop diabetic ketoacidosis if they don't inject enough insulin to compensate for activity and food intake.

Ketogenic acidosis can also happen during:

extended periods of starvation (over months)
prolonged severe exercise
alcoholic binges (this condition is called alcoholic ketoacidosis)
This paper published in Diabetic Medicine discusses several cases in which the drug Ecstasy combined with the excessive movements of rave dancing caused ketoacidosis.
Benign Dietary Ketosis is Controlled

The ketosis that happens on a ketogenic diet is not dangerous because it is regulated by insulin levels within the body.

It's simply the metabolic process of burning your own body fat for fuel, and unless you are diabetic and lacking insulin, or you are a raging alcoholic, it is perfectly safe. Levels for people with a working pancrease and insulin production rarely get above 8mM.

Mossy 11-05-2014 04:14 PM

The goal of a low carb, ketogenic diet plan is to achieve a metabolic state called ketosis. Ketosis is simply a normal metabolic process in which the body cells burn fragments of fats called ketones instead of glucose for fuel.

Ketosis is a beneficial process and helps the body survive during times when no food is available. It has also been shown to improve disease conditions such as epilepsy, autism, Alzheimer's, cancer and others.

Mossy 11-05-2014 04:16 PM

The Basic Concepts

There are many low carbohydrate, ketogenic diet plans from which to choose. (The Atkins diet is just the most famous). They all involve following a higher fat, moderate protein, low carb food plan.

The main difference between a regular low carb diet plan and a ketogenic diet plan is the amount of carbohydrate and protein allowed on a daily basis:

A ketogenic diet plan requires tracking the carb amounts in the foods eaten and keeping carbohydrate intake between 20-60 grams per day. The daily protein requirement will be moderate, and depends on height, gender and how much exercise is done. The balance of calories will be from fats. These ratios ensure that most people go into ketosis and stay there, which is the main objective of the ketogenic diet.

The nutrient intake on a ketogenic diet typically works out to about 70-75% of calories from fat, 20-25% from protein, and 5-10% from carbohydrate on a daily basis when calories are not restricted. Since a ketogenic diet reduces hunger, calorie counting is optional. However it's important to understand how macronutrient percentages can be affected by caloric intake, so you may want to read the calorie counting page to clarify your thoughts on this subject.

The key to understanding a ketogenic diet plan is to remember that one is swapping out the carbs in the diet with a higher fat and a moderate protein intake.

Why high fat and moderate protein? Fats have no effect on blood sugar and insulin levels. Protein does affect both blood sugar and insulin, if large quantities are consumed. If you overeat protein, about 56% of any excess protein will be converted to glucose (sugar) in the body, and that extra glucose hanging around will increase insulin, and put the brakes on the body's ability to release and burn fatty acids (go into ketosis).

In addition, eating a diet that is heavy on lean protein (without enough fat) can make one sick with a condition know as "rabbit starvation". It can also wreck the metabolism in other ways.

Mossy 11-05-2014 04:18 PM

Once you have a good understanding and are ready to start, these tips will help you succeed:

Get a carb counter guide to help learn and remember the carb counts of the foods being eaten. Counting carbs is a critical part of the program, and it's important to understand how to do this correctly.

Go on a carbohydrate sweep. Inspect kitchen cupboards and refrigerator, and remove all of the high carb foods. This includes any whole grain "complex carbs".

Restock the kitchen, so that the foods on this low carb food list are available. This will help keep you on the path, grasshopper, and out of the cookies. Here's a low carb grocery list to help with food shopping.

A ketogenic diet plan is not a "special diet" that requires special foods. There is no need to buy any "low carb" packaged foods. Ketogenic foods are essentially just real, whole foods which are close to their natural state. In other words, they are not highly processed. The only exception to this is the category of artificial sweeteners. These are highly processed. However, I think these are important to include in a low carb diet plan, because a small amount of fake sweetener has less of a negative effect on health than the standard amounts of sugar in sweetened foods. Some people may prefer more natural sugar alcohol sweeteners, but studies have shown these are "antiketogenic" and can derail the process of ketosis for some. They effect each person differently, so you'll have to test to see if they effect your health or weight loss goals.

Be prepared to spend more time in the kitchen. This is an important point. A ketogenic diet menu involves cooking and eating real foods. If you don't know how to cook, this would be a good time to learn about cooking in general and specifically low carb cooking.

Think about your meals, and how you will plan them. This will help in buying the right foods at the grocery store, and give a framework to follow when meal time arrives. If you know you're supposed to have salmon and broccoli for dinner tonight, it makes it a lot easier to avoid choosing the old high carb foods you used to eat.

Replace old habits with new ones. If you're used to hitting the coffee place for a bagel, start making coffee at home, and have it with the eggs instead.

Stay hydrated. As carb intake is lowered, the kidneys will start dumping the excess water the body has been holding due to a high carb intake. Make sure to drink enough water to replace what gets lost. The old 6-8 glasses is a good rule, I guess, although just drinking to thirst will probably do the trick. If you find yourself getting headaches and muscle cramps, you need more water, and more minerals such as salt, magnesium and potassium, because the water loss also takes minerals with it. (See my low carb diet side effects page for more info).

Avoid the foods on this list of high carb foods. These are the foods that drive up your blood sugar and insulin levels. In addition, cereal grains like wheat are toxic for more people than is widely known. I think that most people with diet related health issues have an untreated gluten intolerance.

Consider taking these natural supplements. I recommend them for the specific issues I discuss on my low carb diet side effects page.
You may also want to buy some Ketostix Reagent Strips so that you can check to see if you are in ketosis for the first few weeks. However, after the first 3-4 weeks on the plan, the goal is to become "keto-adapted". Once adapted, the body should be burning the ketones for fuel. The stick shouldn't register as deep purple if you are using the ketones as a fuel source. And recently, a blood ketones meter has become available to track ketosis at home. This is a much more accurate way to track your individual ketone levels. See the sidebar on my ketosis page for more information.

Find some way to track daily food intake and carb counts. Keep a spreadsheet, use one of the online food intake trackers, or simply write it down in a journal. Not only will journaling help you stay on track carb count wise, you'll want to have a record of the foods you are eating, how you felt and the changes you make so that if you go off track, you can look back and see what worked for you. This is a good place to track ketone levels as well. I've created a free printable food diary for you to use. The Atkins website also has some nice tools for tracking your progress on a ketogenic diet plan. And this database is an excellent resource for food information.

Think about any social situations that will be encountered, and devise ways to handle those times when temptations to eat the "old" way will be high. You don't want to be blind sided when someone at the office brings in a box of your favorite chocolates and puts them right under your nose. Likewise, a beer with your friends usually turns into a date with potato skins and nachos. Think salad and steak instead.

Even if you are starting a ketogenic diet plan for weight loss purposes, don't focus on your weight. Don't weigh yourself every day. Your weight can vary between 2-4 pounds each day because of changes in water intake and absorption. You won't be able to track any fat loss accurately on a daily basis, and the fluctuations will make you crazy if you focus on them. Instead, weigh yourself once a week, or keep track of your body measurements to track your progress. Better yet, focus on the health benefits and the long term health changes that come with eating a low carb diet. Knowing that you are greatly improving your health is a powerful reason to stay with a ketogenic diet plan, even if you don't lose any weight. I discuss in more depth the health benefits of a ketogenic diet in this article published in the July/August issue of the Well Being Journal.I recommend getting a health check up and a blood panel test done just before starting the diet, so that you can track the effect of the change in your eating habits on your cholesterol, blood pressure, and other health markers. Four to eight weeks later, you can get another blood test done and see if there are improvements.

Learn how to stop sugar cravings. There are supplements and techniques that can help you overcome those nagging thoughts of dessert and get your blood sugar under control. As time passes, you'll find that ketosis is a powerful appetite suppressant, so it should get easier to abstain the longer you eat ketogenically.

Mossy 11-05-2014 04:22 PM

Fallacies and Fears: Is a Ketogenic Diet Plan Dangerous?

The "dangers of low carb diets" are really just myths told by people who have a limited understanding of how low carb diets work.

The main criticisms include fears about fat intake and the process of ketosis.

Fears about fat: Most people have trouble on a ketogenic diet plan because they are scared to increase the amount of fat they eat, especially saturated fat. The message that fat is bad has been pounded into the collective American consciousness for the last 30 years. It's hard to unlearn the message that fat makes you fat, and saturated fat especially is very bad for you. I understand that message has been repeated over and over, but it is a lie.

Here's the reality: A high carb diet drives up blood sugar and insulin levels. All that sugar and insulin are inflammatory. The standard American diet offers lots of foods that are high sugar AND high in saturated fat, and in studies, these two factors were lumped together. So although saturated fat is healthy, it got the blame for the inflammation that causes heart disease because it was studied in combination with a high carb diet. A ketogenic diet plan which is high in saturated fat and very low in carbohydrate will REDUCE inflammation.

Saturated fat is not harmful in the context of a low carb diet. This study from Johns Hopkins Medical School confirms this.The ketogenic diet plan is healthier because the higher saturated fat intake increases your HDL cholesterol, and at the same time, a lower carb intake decreases your triglycerides levels. These two factors are the major markers for heart disease, and the closer your triglyceride/HDL ratio is to 1, the healthier your heart. In reality, the cause of heart disease is a chronically high carbohydrate consumption, not a high saturated fat and cholesterol intake.I think the best way to learn this is to get a full blood test before you start a ketogenic diet plan, then do the diet faithfully for 3 months. Then have your blood work checked again. You'll see the difference and discover how much better you feel. (See my Healthy Eating Politics website for more information on the how the lie that "cholesterol and saturated fat cause heart disease" got started and gets repeated.

Some people don't do well in ketosis. You should check with your physician if you have any concerns about starting a ketogenic diet plan with pre-existing health conditions, especially if those conditions involve kidney or heart problems. Although ketosis, and ketogenic diets in general, are beneficial for most people, there is some anecdotal and research based evidence that suggest that deep ketosis will cause a transient increase in the body's levels of adrenaline and cortisol for a small subgroup of people. These higher levels of stimulant hormones can cause thyroid issues, heart irregularities and elevated blood pressure for some, while others just feel more alert. It's for this reason that it is not recommended going much lower than 15-20 carbs per day. The ketogenic is a very low carb diet, but it is not a zero carb diet.If you find you are one of the people who doesn't feel well at very low carb levels, adding enough carbohydrate back into your diet to come out of ketosis should resolve the issues, and may still allow for the health benefits for sure, and weight loss.

Mossy 11-05-2014 04:28 PM

The more likely result of a ketogenic diet plan, once you've adapted to it, is that you will feel much better and be much healthier. One of the long list of health benefits of a ketogenic diet is that it lowers your fasting blood sugar and insulin levels, helps reverse insulin resistant conditions, cools inflammation and in turn, leads to better overall health.

If you have any lingering concerns, please remember that the latest scientific studies (visit the Nutrition and Metabolism Society) have shown that following a ketogenic diet plan is not detrimental to human health, if it is eaten while also minimizing carbohydrate intake.

It's only when you combine lots of fat and lots of carbohydrates in your diet that you get into trouble. The sugar from the carbohydrates drives up your insulin levels, and those high insulin levels cause any fat you eat to be stored immediately. This causes the weight gain associated with insulin resistance and starts the health problems that should be associated with a high carb diet, not a ketogenic diet plan.

Last tip: You may be able to find a doctor who has actually read the latest studies on ketogenic diets, understands how to manage a ketogenic diet plan.

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