I could be wrong, and different people get different plans, but the first time you do Take Off (before they've given you a plan book or anything), you get unlimited proteins, so eating 5 eggs was fine. Don't recall getting any dairy (cheese) on my initial Take Off, but cheese is also considered a protein (as well as a dairy), so you may be okay. Now, I'm assuming that Caesar salad didn't have all the creamy dressing on it and you should be fine.
These will all be good questions to ask at your COD tomorrow. If you did something you should not have done, then someone at the COD did not do a good job explaining it to you and they should take some extra time with you during your sessions. When I first started going in for my WI and talk, I thought I knew everything there was to know about weight loss and nutrition. At least once a week I learn something new from them; it's worth it (at least for me) to wait and talk to them. If you don't click with one particular counselor, ask to see someone different.
You are NOT a failure in my book - if you were bright enough to find your way to this LAWL site, you are going to have this program figured out in no time. Good luck and hang in there. Don't be so hard on yourself.
5'3" ... 54 years young