First, good job! Starting out is a big step! Even if you didn't reach the numbers that were asked, it sounds like you pushed yourself and that is important!
Now, there are two different kinds of hurt (as time goes on you will easily know the difference), muscle soreness and injury.
I often feel super sore (when I feel the soreness every time I walk up and down the stairs or squat) after a super hard workout! When I first started out, it could last about a week but, now if I have an intense workout to the point where I am that sore, it lasts about a day. (Sadly, I sometimes miss that feeling)
Injury soreness is completely different. If you are worried that you are injured, I suggest going to see a doctor. If you are injured, do NOT workout.
CherryPie99 has it right though (for muscle soreness as the cause of pain), work different muscles the next day. Jillian Michaels even suggests waiting 48 hours between working the same muscle groups.
I like to run. If this is the cause (if you decide to pick up running in the future), depending on how bad your legs are, take a day off and then go for an easy run the next day.
I hope this helps and good job again on starting out!!!!!